Russian President Vladimir Putin called Erdogan on 23 June from an offshore platform near Anapa, on Russia’s Black Sea coast, to signal the start of the TurkStream pipeline. The project’s deepwater phase will cross the Black Sea from Anapa to Turkey’s northwestern port of Kiyikoy. The gas will then be transited overland to Greece. TurkStream’s twin 32in-diameter deepwater pipelines, running at a depth of 2,000m, will have a total capacity of 31.5 bcm. The project will help Europe meet its anticipated rise in gas demand from 512 bcm in 2017 to 605 bcm by 2030.