On 28 June Kazakhstan held Senate elections, with results exactly in line with what President Nursultan Nazarbayev desired. The president directly appoints 15 of the 47 senators, most of whom are his friends and close associates, including many retired officials. The remaining seats have staggered elections; every three years a group of 16 senators is elected to six-year terms. They represent Kazakhstan’s 14 regions and two major cities – Astana and Almaty – with two senators from each area. About 3,000 special electors, usually deputies in regional parliaments and local municipalities, vote in these Senate races.